Farmers are causing difficulties for themselves by burning crop wastes or farm waste, according to Pusa Decomposer. This method of burning depletes soil nutrients and pollutes the environment. Pusa decomposer capsules are being introduced that transforms crop debris into organic manure. This Pusadecomposer not only solves the problem of enormous harvests being burned but also turns them into organic manure. This organic manure feeds the soil with essential micronutrients that aid crop growth. This is the simplest and most cost-effective solution to the large-scale crop-burning problem.
The Pusa decomposer improves soil fertility and production by acting as manure and compost for the crops, reducing the need for fertilizer in the future.
. Stubble burning depletes the soil's fertility and eliminates the soil's beneficial bacteria and fungi, in addition to harming the environment.
.. Pusa decomposer is a cost-effective, achievable, and practical method for preventing stubble burning.
. Pusa decomposer is an environmentally benign and beneficial technology that will aid in the achievement of the Swachh Bharat mission.
Last year, the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)sprayed the decomposer on roughly 1,950 acres of land as part of a pilot study to eliminate the practice of stubble burning to clean the area after paddy harvest before growing the next crop.
On Friday, roughly 35 workers stood in a tent in the village, each holding a vessel filled with about 25 liters of water to produce the solution. The water is boiled with jaggery, then cooled before being combined with gram flour and fungus capsules. To allow the fungi to develop, the vessels are covered with muslin material for three to four days. The bacteria in the solution act on the stubble after it has been sprayed, turning it into compost that can be mixed with the soil.
One acre of land requires approximately 10 liters of the solution, which can take up to 10 days to prepare.
Farmers in 59 villages near Delhi applied decomposers sprayed recently.
Farmers had to fill out applications between September 12and September 24 to have the decomposer sprayed.
According to Saini, the decomposer will benefit farmers who harvest in a way that crops waste on the field, such as using combine harvesters.
Last year's users of the solution were pleased with the outcomes and plan to utilize it again this year. Bhushan Tyagi (who did not have it sprayed last year) of Hiranki in Northwest Delhi, has decided not to use it this year as well: "I filled out an application form but did not submit it." Paddy has gathered about ten days ago. It will be late by the time the decomposer arrives, as they will only spray it after October 1," he stated.
"It will take at least 10 days to acquire the spray, and then another 15 days for it to work," Tyagi said of ploughing for the wheat harvest around October 25. To assure a successful crop, farmers prefer to harvest and then leave the field for a while before ploughing again."
He claims that he reworked the soil and flooded the field with water both this year and last year to break down the stubble, making the field fertile. Last year, a rotavator assisted in the mixing of the stubble in the soil, which took around 10 days to decay, according to him.
Om Prakash Singh, a farmer in Jamalpur village in Karnalwho runs a 10-acre farm, is excited about the new Pusa decomposer he has deployed in his field.
Singh says he chose the bio-decomposer because of its"dual benefits.
"Until last year, despite a legal struggle with the government and threats of legal action, we used to burn stubble." This year, we chose to use a spray solution because it has two advantages: it reduces the risk of fire and gives additional manure when the stubble decomposes in the soil. The farm will be tilled and watered a day or two after the decomposer is applied, allowing for a quick breakdown," Singh explained.
Paddy is harvested by mechanized combine harvesters in Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh in October, leaving stubble behind. Farmers then burned the stubble to make room for the next crop.
Stubble burning in the neighboring states of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh causes an increase in air pollution in the national capital as winter approaches. As a result, Delhi's air quality index (AQI)frequently falls into the severe and 'hazardous' categories.
To prevent farmers from setting fire to agricultural wastes, the federal government has advocated the use of Pusa decomposer, a low-cost microbial bio-enzyme that can decompose crop residues, including stubble from rice crops.
In 2020, the government provided Pusa Decomposer, a crop residue management tool developed by ICAR-Indian Agriculture Research Institute(IARI), on a trial basis to numerous states.
More than 25,000 farmers from 17 districts in Punjab and Haryana have signed up to apply Pusa decomposer on their fields this year. Farmers say the decomposer appears to be effective and will help them save money on fertilizer.
"We used to burn stubble earlier because handling it by machines costs at least Rs 4,000-5,000 per acre with expensive fuel and labor costs," said Rajveer Singh, a farmer from Karnal. This year, though, I harvested my paddy crop on September 22, sprayed PUSA decomposer on September 24, and finished tilling on September 28. Following irrigation, the fields were prepared for crop sowing in the next weeks. The decomposition of stubble in the soil reduces fertilizer consumption by at least 20 kg per acre, from 50 kg to30 kg. I'll tell everyone in the area to spray their fields with bio-decomposer."
Fertilizer input is reduced, and fuel costs are reduced.
Aside from lowering fertilizer input costs, bio decomposers also help minimize equipment, fuel, and labor expenses during the sowing of the next crop.
"Previously, nutrients in the top layer of the soil were burned, but today they remain in the soil," said Praveen Sharma, who has already sowed the mustard crop after spraying Pusa bio decomposer.
Previously, 4 bags of urea per acre were utilized, but this has since been decreased to 2-2.5 bags per acre. Similarly, DAP usage has been reduced from three to one bag, saving Rs 3,000 per acre. In comparison to glut season, my crop will mature earlier and I will receive a greater price."
Om Prakash Singh, a Haryana farmer, said: "Previously, after burning stubble, 4-6 rounds of machine tilling were necessary, which has now been reduced to only 2-3." The total cost of equipment, labor, and fuel saved per acre is Rs 1,000." Farmers can also benefit from bio-decomposers since they can cultivate short-term commercial crops like coriander before sowing long-term crops like wheat or mustard.
Solution for spraying
Nurture farm, a Bengaluru-based startup that is leading the charge to supply farmers with cost-effective and long-term farming solutions partnered with IARI to improve the Pusa decomposer by converting capsules into a ready-to-use spray solution.
"The capsules were not straightforward to deploy," said Pranav Tiwari, Chief Technology Officer, "since they had to be fermented for a couple of weeks with jaggery and chickpea flour in water before being administered." We turned it into a ready-to-use powder that can be combined with water and sprayed right away."
The soil is prepared and cultivated for crops after a few days of spraying the Pusa decomposer. Mixing stubble with soil and the latter's-existing moisture offers ideal decomposition conditions for manure production and soil nutrient enrichment.
"One important component of soil quality is organic carbon content, which is present in the stubble and is repaired back in the soil with decomposition, making it extraordinarily fertile and rich." "Spraying, which costs only Rs 600 per acre, might be replaced with other choices such as happy seeding or human work, which cost between Rs 3,000 and 4,000 per acre. To completely prevent fires in the next 2-3 years, we want to cover 5 lakh acres and 25,000 farmers this year."